Accommodations refer to any change in instruction or evaluation determined necessary by the IEP team that does NOT impact the rigor and/or validity of the subject matter being taught or assessed. (NH Rules pg 2) Accommodations simply "level the playing field" and are intended to mitigate the effects of a student's disability. Accommodations do not alter the learning standards or expectations. Examples include additional test time, a quiet place for test taking, books on tape, using large print or Braille, graphic organizers etc. Modifications on the other hand, change the level of instruction provided or tested and create a different standard for the student receiving them. Examples include giving easier assignments, making student responsible for more general concepts, fewer test problems etc. (Howard County Autism Society)
"Core academic subjects" as defined in 34 CFR 300.10, include:
(2) Reading or language arts;
(5) Foreign languages;
(6) Civics and government;
(9) History; and
(NH Rules page 8)
Inclusion is a term which expresses commitment to educate each child, to the maximum extent appropriate, in the school and classroom he or she would otherwise attend. It involves bringing the support services to the child (rather than moving the child to the services) and requires only that the chiId will benefit from being in the class (rather than having to keep up with the other students). Proponents of inclusion generally favor newer forms of education service delivery. In an inclusive setting, a severely disabled student may only need to know the name of his own state and of the country. He also may receive one-on-one instruction by a paraprofessional in order to accomplish this assessment goal. The curriculum is often significantly modified for the included student so that he will have the capability to pass the assessments and gain confidence in his skills, even if he is not performing anywhere near the level of his peers.
Those who support the idea of mainstreaming believe that a chiId with disabilities first belongs in the special education environment and that the child must earn his/her way into the regular education environment.
In contrast, those who support inclusion believe that the child always should begin in the regular environment and be removed only when appropriate services cannot be provided in the regular classroom. (Brighthubeducation.com)